Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon. One of the properties of semiconductors that makes them most useful is that their conductivity may easily be modified by introducing impurities into their crystal lattice Solar photovoltaic are made with a number of parts, the most important of which are silicon cells. Silicon, atomic number 14 on the periodic table, is a nonmetal with conductive properties that give it the ability to convert sunlight into electricity. When light interacts with a silicon cell, it causes electrons to be set into motion, which insofar panels are made from Silicon. Silicon (Si) is an abundant non-metallic chemical element which makes up almost 30% of the earth’s crust and is the 7th most common element in the Universe. To make the solar cells which make up a crystalline solar panel, crystalline silicon is sliced into thin wafers – a few millimeters thin. These are then cut to shape and polished. This is known as the “photovoltaic effect.” Photovoltaic is the field of technology and research related to the devices which directly convert sunlight into electricity. The solar cell is the elementary building block of the photovoltaic technology. A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a single support structure or frame is called a ‘photovoltaic module’. Modules are designed to supply electricity at a certain voltage, such as a common 12 volt system. The current produced is directly dependent on the intensity of light reaching the module. Several modules can be wired together to Solar panels act as a way to mount a series of solar cells so that their unique properties can be used to generate electricity. Individual cells absorb photons from the Sun, which results in the production of an electric current in the cell through a phenomenon known as the photovoltaic effect. An inverter is used to convert the direct current generated by a solar panel into alternating current. Combined, these two technologies create a photovoltaic system. When installing a solar panel, the proper orientation is chosen so that the solar panel faces in a direction that is most suitable for the specific application. Solar cell technology must be simple and efficient, being able to be used in standard industrial lines with minor modifications. A solar array is a group of solar panels connected together. A solar system is a solar array connected together with electronic equipment such as a DC to AC power inverter and other hardware like circuit breakers to complete a fully functional solar power system. This is most often to produce the maximum annual energy, but is not always the case.

                           How are solar panels made?

Solar panels are made using a series of PV cells protected by glass, EVA and a protective back sheet housed in a tough aluminum frame. The components must be engineered to withstand years of extreme weather temperatures and high wind forces. Here we explain each component in detail and why it is vital to the long term performance of a solar panel.

Six Main Components of a Solar Panel

  1. Solar photovoltaic cells
  2. Toughened Glass – 3 to 3.5mm thick
  3. Extruded Aluminum frame
  4. Encapsulation – EVA film layers
  5. Polymer rear back-sheet
  6. Junction box – diodes and connectors